Geographical information system is a set of tools that is used to get data, store, retrieve, analyze, interpret and display of a real world time objects. And remote sensing is collecting data about an object without any physical contact between an object and sensor. This article is about GIS and RS application in the field of natural resource management. By the help of GIS and RS technology, we can easily maintain and manage natural resources. The natural resources include agricultural land, water resources, forest resources, etc.
Natural resources are essential for the economic growth of a nation. It plays an important role in the economic development of a country. Because natural resources are the source of raw material for industries, as a source of food for organisms, as a source of medicine in the pharmaceutical industry, as a source of energy, and as a source of aesthetic beauty. The cultural representation of any nation is the natural resources. However, it is essential for nations to learn how they will use their natural resources in a sustainable manner to ensure that these benefits are not only for the present generation but as well as for future generations. Now-a-days due to overpopulation the natural resourses are not used in a sustainable manner. Due to this the natural resources become scarce and depleted day by day. That’s why GIS technology is used to monitor and manage the natural resources. When the resources are managed in a proper way it will achieve the goal of sustainability, this is only possible by the help of RS and GIS technology. Through the help of GIS and RS technology, the information is collected about natural resources and then this information is further used to make decisions about sustainable use of natural resources.
In natural resource management, GIS technology is used in the mapping process, such as vegetation cover maps, land cover maps, water cover maps and geology maps. Through the help of these maps a variety of data is collected and analyzed. The data is collected with the help of remote sensing technology. Data can be collected with the help of using either ground photographs, satellite photographs or aerial photographs, of the area of study. Satellite images provide a lot of data about the area of study. The forest covers all over the world is declining or degraded due to human interference. Forest manager or forester can easily obtain information about forest cover through the help of GIS and RS technology. It will give data about forest cover, types of forest (present in the area of study) etc.GIS and RS technology helps to collect data about forest cover and make the best decision regarding forest cover management. Water is a natural resource that is very important for life. It is the most important constituent of the earth. Water is also diminished due to many factors such as pollution, poor distribution and so on. So with the help of GIS and RS technology the data about water bodies is collected.
This data is used in sustainable management of water reservoirs.GIS is also used to analyze distribution of water resources geographically. The water bodies like rivers, lakes, dams and other reservoirs can be easily mapped with the help of GIS technology. Agricultural land is also monitoring and managed with the help of GIS and RS technology, such as crop yield, crop rotation, etc. It can also monitor the vegetation cover on earth. Through the help of GIS and RS technology the natural resources like water, agriculture, forest, etc. are well managed and monitored.GIS and RS technology generated data and this data is further used for proper decision making regarding natural resource management. By the help of this technology the natural resources are not only monitored and managed but also use in a sustainable manner to enjoy in present generation and as well as in future generation.
Sadia Hassan Sherani